The stock market element OYO  introduced in the hotel industry,  by being a bull to buy rooms months ahead of the registration date. A bull is an operator who buys now expecting the price to rise to sell at a later dater.

OYO  purchased huge volumes of rooms in advance from stand alone hotels. With the lead time being long coupled with  volume buying, they got the  rooms at a  throwaway price from hoteliers who saw potential in this deal. The agreement as expressed by a hotel operator in Agra specified a guaranteed amount per month to be paid by OYO  to the hotel operator in lieu of the  rooms committed.

OYO  had invested in the software, costs of their establishments,  training, human resources etc  for this purpose. But, somewhere, the script went wrong.

With OYO unable to credit the hotel operator the guaranteed amount monthly as confirmed by the hotel operators in Agra, Guruvayur and Trisshur, hotel owners collectively unified  against OYO as neither did they receive the money guaranteed by OYO nor could they sell the rooms which were committed to OYO as per the agreement.

The trading model innovated  and introduced is failing with OYO finding itself in trouble having failed to deliver the promised.

At Dalal Street and in other trading,  trust is the basis for all the stake holders. The goodwill and trust no longer exists with trading partners of OYO  refusing to trust OYO.

An innovative trading model of hotel rooms not sustained supposedly as OYO  failed to honour its commitments to its trading partners- the hoteliers.

(The author MS Neelakantan  is the Founder CEO  of www.hospitalitylessons4u.com )




The East India Company – the first MNC  in this world – was created  by a group of merchants who  had received a royal charter from Queen Elizabeth I in 1600 after paying the crown the required money.   Soft Bank backed OYO  may have taken a leaf from the East India Company if one were to draw a parallel.

The royal charter was the monopoly to trade in spices from Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia, collectively termed as the East Indies by the Europeans. They came to India not by choice but due to the Dutch exiting them. Their disappointment on being edged out of East Indies turned into unalloyed  joy as they , found out the  once mighty Mughal Empire was on its last legs in the 18th century.  Using the royal decree, they monopolized the spices trade to Europe. India was then one continent – a huge land space. The business model was acquiring the produce from the land  at a buyer’s price using the revenue model of  only paying for the product,  smartly avoiding incurring the capital costs of underwriting the produce or compensation in times of natural calamities and disasters. Or supporting the supplier in times of distress.

Initially the supplier was delighted as he was getting better rates than before, but it did not take him a long time to realize he had lost his liberty to sell his produce to any  other buyer  except the East India company. His losses did not matter to them. He  was trapped, committed to selling them his produce or else let it lie unsold at the price they determined. They could threaten him with force as they had raised private armies (the legal department with the contract laced with fine print. The commitment of a fixed number of rooms which OYO  would sell at a rate they determined with their software, demand & supply factors etc. is part of the new East India Company strategy. Even if the operational costs  is  much more than the rates fixed by OYO but the hotel owner could not as per the agreement sell the rooms committed to OYO at a higher price to a walk-in guest).

The classic East India Company model of  standalone hotel owners initially  being delighted on signing the agreement with OYO then. Later to rue their fate as allegedly a lot of hidden cost clauses  in the fine print  they omitted to read & understand. To add to it allegations of hidden charges, hotel owners not paid their dues on time. Their voices not heard by OYO . Perceived as arrogance and hubris.

As the OYO  bubble seemed to be bursting, I  spoke to hotel owners in Agra,  Trisshur and  Guruvayur among many across the country. On hearing them out, I realized their situation was similar to that of the supplier in the East India Company days. The relaxed feeling after signing up with OYO initially turned to anxiety & stress with the promised revenues not accruing. Being small operators facing a Goliath, they cowed down, later to collectively flex their muscles. It remains to be seen if a Ritesh Agarwal manages to do what  Robert  Clive did for  the  East India Company. The Battle of Plassey lies ahead to be fought not on the battle ground of Plassey with sword and metal but in the courtrooms and the media rooms.

 (The author MS Neelakantan  is the Founder CEO  of www.hospitalitylessons4u.com )


Delivering long-term value and quality for owners


Here’s a tea time thought.

Just this morning was the news of the launch of Microtel brand by Wyndham Hotels ( You can find the same also on www.hospitalitylessons4u.com) . The brand is undoubtedly seeming to be a “Youthful” one.

We too in India have a youthful , not to forget Hotel ( not sure) brand called Oyo (www.Oyorooms.com) South Asia’s Largest Hotel Chain

This post isn’t about Microtel nor about Oyo , but about a business practice of creating and delivering long term value and quality for business partners (Owners in the case of Hospitality ), (Sellers in the case of e commerce companies etc).

While Wyndhams press release of Microtel brand talks about “The prototype is the first step of Wyndham’s overarching new construction growth strategy focused on delivering long-term value and quality for owners” I wondered if that’s a key practice that Oyo follows too?

How many Oyo partners have built multiple Oyo’s over the years or have reinvested their profits in doing so? Another thought would be- does Oyo have a referral program for its owners? What are the success metrics that Oyo adapts for measuring long term value for its owners?

While Oyo is just an example here of a young brand, Wyndham’s years of being in the business for several decades and its commitment to its owners as business partners is something one could easily emulate.

Drop in a few lines of your tea time reactions / thoughts / emotions or write to us at hospitalitylessons4u.com@gmail.com

Whiskey Barrels can age to 100and more?

Read this article if the maturing process of Whiskey’s fascinates or is of any taste or relevance to you.

Firstly you get to know about all the barrel types:

There are several specific varieties of oak used for barrels—namely, American white oak (Quercus alba), French oak (Quercus roburQuercus petraea), and to a far lesser extent Mongolian/Japanese oak (Quercus mongolica)

Secondly – why Choose Oak?

Flavor , character, body or more…

Thirdly the Barrel types? Wine , Bourbon , Scotch

And then the final question…..can we reuse the barrels to even a 100 years?

Read more and share your views :


Top Trends – Hospitality Industry #1

Hi Everyone- Global passionate Hospitality professionals!

Every now and then you would have across someone inside the industry and some of those outside of the Hospitality Industry , sharing their views on some of the new trends that they see in the future.

While many things may change , it would be impossible to take away the “smile” from the Hospitality World. This for now isn’t changing around the world and AI has no cure ( for now!)

So what’s really changing ?

  1. Are we Millennial ready and Millennial friendly?

As a brand , a physical touchpoint , our social media presence and how we address the highly demanding yet Wikipedia explains ” Millennials, also known as Generation Y or Gen Y,Although millennial characteristics vary by region, depending on social and economic conditions, the generation has been generally marked by an increased use and familiarity with communications, media and digital technologies

according to USA Today and also available on live science.com. “The trend is more of an emphasis on extrinsic values such as money, fame, and image, and less emphasis on intrinsic values such as self-acceptance, group affiliation and community.”

They have also been described in positive ways. They are generally regarded as being more open-minded, and more supportive of gay rights and equal rights for minorities. Other positives adjectives to describe them include confident, self-expressive, liberal, upbeat and receptive to new ideas and ways of living.

So how well do you stack up with your offerings for the Millennial? Pause! The answer is not merely on what colours you use or what font style is your logo. The real challenge is how have you integrated the millennial thought process in your product and service delivery offerings and how do you keep changing these to constantly keep adapting to millennial customers and customer groups who choose you as a brand versus another.

There are no perfect answers , just an ever evolving process.

Do share your views and thoughts , experiences and ideas with us at www.hospitalitylessons4u.com

Apologies Unqualified

Dearest Subscriber

Kindly accept my sincere unqualified apologies for not mailing the daily Global Hospitality News consistently.

No excuses, but a plea to empathise due a combination of ill health, personal and technical reasons.

However, that’s history. We cannot attempt to change it. But, a resolve to update daily.

I would appreciate your feedback.

Thank you for bearing with us.

With Warm Regards & Best Wishes

MS Neelakantan- Neel

Founder CEO

FAREWELL Mrs. Malathi Borgia – Malathi Maa’m

A teacher affects eternity. He /She can never tell where his/her influence stops.
Henry Adams

Mrs. Malathi Borgia, or Malathi Ma’am, as her students from 1980 to 2018 address her or refer to her, could well be the teacher Henry Adams alluded to. As our unassuming and unpretentious House-keeping teacher bids farewell to IHMCT Ahmedabad on December 31, 2018, this is a tribute on behalf of those enriched by interacting with her.

I was the first from among my course-mates and juniors as to follow in her foot-steps, and join IHMCT, Pusa, New Delhi,  as a teacher. This meant, on my trips to Ahmedabad I could exchange notes on teaching, students etc. and had the pleasure and honour of hosting her every summer when she came over to Pusa to evaluate the Housekeeping papers at the National Council for Hotel Management & Catering Technology. I was blessed to have that honour and pleasure.   

In 1983, the Food Craft Institute, Ahmedabad, was upgraded as a Institute of Hotel Management with the introduction of the three-year Diploma programme. I was fortunate to be a student in the first batch, the Class of ’86 had around 30 students.  Most of us were raw and gauche, joining here as we had not secured admission elsewhere. We thank our stars today that we did not get through to the Engineering/Medical/Commerce stream  seats. Being the inaugural batch gave us undivided attention from our teachers, among them Malathi Ma’am.

Early in the first year, in one of our Housekeeping practical sessions, I  was assigned the Boys’ Hostel toilet. You could smell the stink a mile away.  Cursing under my breath, I somehow managed to clean it within the allotted time.  I stood back to survey my work with a sense of great satisfaction, presuming I would get an “Excellent” from Malathi Ma’am.

She came along a little while later to inquire whether I had completed the assignment. When I nodded in affirmation, she asked me to check if there were any boys in. To my utter shock, she entered the toilet, made a detailed check and asked me to hand over to her the brush used to clean the water closet.

I assumed I had done it satisfactorily but not by her standards of excellence. She demonstrated how a toilet should be cleaned. I saw the boys’ hostel water closet clean and shining. That was her leading by example.

Later, I was assigned the corridor in the entrance of the old building. “This is a walk in Park,” I thought to myself when comparing the corridor with the toilet in the boys’ hostel. The standard procedure involved removing the cobwebs, dusting, sweeping and mopping in that order, if memory does not fail me.

As she came to inspect, I recall her appreciating my work with a “Good, but….

“Neelakantan, you have overlooked the skirtings.”

And she hitched her starched light pink saree to squat on her haunches, soaped a part of the skirting and proceeded to use the hard brush on it. A mixture of grey and brown coloured liquid, grime and dust dripped down. Then, she used a duster to dry it up. I could only squat there mesmerised.

Handing me the brush and cleaning agent, she asked me to clean the rest of the skirting. She waited till I had done both the walls to her satisfaction. Whereupon, with a smile very impishly, she queried in Thamizh (it was always Thamizh in private) “I am sure you know how to mop!”

After I finished mopping, she showed she was not done yet! She ran her left palm under the inquiry counter and came up with dust. Did I need any more instruction now?

Many years later, during a conversation with fellow-alumnus Harish, now the Principal of Anjuman-e-Islam College for Hospitality in Mumbai, a few years my junior, I discovered that this was typical Malathi ma’am.

When IHM-A alumni meet one other for the first time,  you can be sure that  one question pops up. “Did you study at the old building or in the new building?” Harish had passed out from the old building. As the names of teachers came up, Malathi Ma’am’s name cropped up.  He narrated the boys’ hostel toilet and the skirting incidents as if he was reading my thoughts.   

These were just the two ‘encounters’, as Harish aptly termed them, that reflect the legend of Malathi ma’am. But the admonishing was always in her soft cultured tone with a smile.

For the record, she completed her three-year Diploma in Hotel Management & Catering Technology, Madras (now Chennai) in 1979. She spent a year teaching in Madras before joining IHM Ahmedabad, then known as Food Craft Institute. Imagine the challenge this young lady took upon herself! Not conversant with Hindi, she dared to venture to Ahmedabad – a rather small city back then – to start tutoring the Housekeeping Craft Course.

Of course, she had the company of her three course-mates – Chef Prathapsingh from Nagercoil; Bakery Chef Ramesh and Mr Borgia Bedc, our Food & Beverage teacher whom she was to marry.

Sometime in 2008, I dared to ask Mr NM Rafique, our Founder Principal, whether was it by design or by accident that he got his teaching faculty, all Tamilians from IHM Madras. “Neelakantan, no teaching faculty from Delhi, Bombay and Calcutta wanted to come to an FCI, that too in a small city then. They were willing and I had the Hobson’s choice,” he said.

That choice worked out great. As teachers, besides tutoring us in our respective subjects, they knocked some basic sense into us to make us worthy of being  hospitality industry  professionals. As our teacher, demanding– making us strain every sinew, inspiring us, earning our respect and in the process demonstrating every job had a dignity.

It will be apt to reproduce a paragraph from Love, Affection & Respect; A Teacher’s Ode to his Students, my memoirs as a teacher at IHMCT, Pusa, New Delhi. In the chapter title My role model teachers, I have written on her as one my role models whose standards of excellence I tried to emulate.  

Mrs Malathi Borgia…was our House-keeping Instructor. She was warmth personified and a bundle of enthusiastic energy. Her smile disarmed many. Unlike her husband who had a swagger and a hint of a smile. She was openly affable and simple. Both though were tough taskmasters, leading by example. He never hesitated to pick up a sheet and wipe the silver, glassware or crockery when needed or when he wanted to demonstrate.

She would be at home to demonstrate how to clean the boys’ toilets or kneel on the floor to make that tile on the skirting shine like a mirror. There was no compromise on standards of excellence. On the journal submission front, he would not spare a thought to send the journal to the floor if it did not meet the standards of excellence. She would with a smile return the journal to the student asking it to be re-written.  

It was a pity (from the students perspective, that is) the couple left IHMCT in 1984 to enrich themselves with knowledge of the industry practices. They joined Surya Hotel in Vadodara to be at the helm of affairs. They moved on to Manipal to lay the foundation of WGSHA as the first teaching faculty. They re-joined IHMCT Ahmedabad to bring the industry to the classrooms. Yes, we did miss them but were delighted to hear they had joined back after our passing out.

In cricketing terms, when an opening batsman remains unbeaten at the fall of his team’s 10th wicket, it is said that the batsman has carried his bat. In some respects, Malathi Ma’am will qualify as the only teacher from IHHMCT Ahmedabad to have carried her bat.

We can never thank Mrs Malathi Borgia enough. For dusting our minds, removing the cobwebs, for sweeping away our sub-standard efforts, for cleaning the skirtings of our character, and for mopping the thought of not taking ownership and responsibility.

During her eventful career, she never allowed the grass to grow under her feet, successfully completing her MBA when managing her own classes; raising children and grandchildren,   home and hearth. Retirement and she! Banish that thought. She is already in the process of authoring a book on Housekeeping which shall be a Bible for teachers and students alike.

Yet, as one institution parts professionally from another and she returns home, today on December 31, her eyes will be moist and there will be a lump in her throat as it will be with her students, wherever they are.

MS Neelakantan Class of ’86- IHM Ahmedabad is the Founder of https://hospitalitylessons4u.com/ 

Global Hospitality news -catch up on the Past week…

Dear Hospitality Professional


Here’s a Quick link to all the news and action for the past week!


Clink the links to read more!

Global Hospitality News-06.12.18

Global Hospitality News-05.12.18

# Full-Service Luxury Hotels Are Outperforming the Rest of the Hotel Sector. So Why Are Developers Not Building More of Them?

# The Jodhpur Palace played host to the star-studded wedding of Priyanka Chopra and Nick Jonas

# Hospitality sector could get a RevPar boost by 2019

# Indian food manufacturers unhappy with new food label restrictions

 #  Vacation Ownership Market Revenue & Gross Margin Analysis 2018 Key Players Wyndham, Marriott Vacations Worldwide

# This London Hotel has a Whisky Vending Machine and Exactly One Guest Room 

# HRAWI Trains & Certifies Over 1000 Hospitality Professionals under FSSAI’s STaC Programme

# Indian food manufacturers unhappy with new food label restrictions

# Michelle Obama on Facing Criticism, Life After the White House, and Advice for Meghan Markle

# We got to tag along with the crew of ‘Top Chef’ 16. Here’s what we saw

Global Hospitality News-04.12.18

# Let your passion not fade with the lookout for money

# “I don’t want to be in hospitality all my life“

# That customer service agent you’re chatting with might be watching you type in real time

# Easy ways to update your home before holiday guests arrive

# A $2.2m bottle of whisky

# The Most Expensive Caviar on the Planet (Photos)

# Brother of missing Florida tourist flies to Costa Rica to find her

# Former White House chef from Lancaster County reflects on President George H.W. Bush’s passing

# The greenskeeper: Baby’s Breath

 #  Philippines aims for more Indian tourists

Global Hospitality News-03.12.18

# Lifestyling with Lisa :It’s spring time clean-up time

#  2 important safety features failed during DSM hotel fire

# Freestyle Food Freestyle Expression

# Airlines To Start Weighing Carry- On  Bags Prior to Boarding

 # Hotel’s winning surprise is something you can use in your business

# Classic Travel mulls tour to Indian wildlife park

Ritesh Agarwal’s OYO is a $5-billion  Buisness

# Marriott’s Starwood hotels hit by massive cyber breach

# Earn 5,000 Points for a Selfie With IHG

Global Hospitality News-01.12.18

# Why you should drink champagne Every Day

# Global Extended Stay Hotel Market 2018 – Size, Share, Trends & Growth Opportunities

# Consider the Edible Arrangement

# These are the best hotels, destinations, airports and airlines in the world right now

 # The 25 Best-Selling Whisky Brands In The World

# India is next big market

# Marriott to open nearly 30 business hotels in Europe in two years

# Big Brothers Big Sisters to host holiday party for children in need

# Belgian caviar production at full speed for Christmas rush

# Las Vegas hosts student security conference

Global Hospitality News-30.11.18

# Canadian Hotel Occupancy Up 0.6 Percent to 62.8 Percent For Week Ending 17 November 2018

Cricket season sees $1bn Indian tourist boom

# In the European culture, hospitality is a common denominator

# Some airlines may be using algorithms to split up families during flights

Inside the Marriott-Starwood Loyalty Program Turbulence

# Last Call: Chef José Andrés nominated for Nobel Peace Prize

#  Travel booming thanks to strong economy, says IHG Americas CEO

Thai cave where soccer team was trapped now a tourist attraction

Accorhotels looks to buy out Polish hotel group Orbis


Have a wonderful & hospitable day!


Team HL4U

Global Hospitality Industry News – 10.11.18 & 11.11.18

Dear Hospitality Professional

Here’s your daily Global Industry newsletter for :


Global Hospitality News-11.11.18

#Au revoir, France: China to become worlds top travel destination by 2030

# Choice Hotels launches book on Google

# Choice Privileges Named A Top Hotel Loyalty Program In USA

# Naumi Hotels expands portfolio with acquisition of two hotels in Wellington

# Dubai Airports announces partnership with Dubai College of Tourism to elevate hospitality experience

# Become a whiskey expert at these 5 whiskey tastings around Boston

# Wines Of The Week: Why France Remains A Benchmark

# Here are the Cancellation Policies of Major Hotel Chains

# 9 Whiskey spiked Holiday recipes

# Hilton Garden Inn opens 13 hotels across six countries


Global Hospitality News-10.11.18

A hotel decorated with colors that represent your emotions is now open for guests

Napali Capital Announces Formation Of Napali Hospitality Group

# Five destinations for the active traveller

# How Can You Achieve Quality Customer Service By Determining Your Customers’ Temperament

# How Do You Improve Hotel Service? Listen To Your Guests

NRI falls to death in central Delhi hotel

# New ranking method could help hotels to maximize their revenue

Thailand to waive visa-on-arrival fee for Indian travellers ( for 2 months!)

Sustainable Tourism In Indian State Of Uttarakhand: Opportunities, Challenges And Policy Targets

Read more at :


Keep learning and sharing …

Have a Hospitable day!


Team Hospitality Lessons

Global Hospitality Industry News – 09.11.18

Dear Hospitality Professional


Here are the top picks for you around the world!

Global Hospitality News-09.11.18

# Hotels in the USA and Caribbean get major renovations

# Why Employee Recognition Matters for Hotels

# Hilton invested $7 million in Hawaii properties during Q3 2018

# Marriott CEO: Dont Worry About Our Soft Third Quarter

# Report: Here are the U.S. airlines with the most customer complaints

# IHG adds execs to boost growth in Europe

# Crowne Plaza Nairobi wins Kenyas Leading Business Hotel 2018

# IHG signs deal with Al Arabiya Real Estate Company to bring Staybridge Suites to Kuwait

# Wyndham plans eight new hotels next year including a luxury Grand in CDMX

# Plan to develop tourism along Indo-Pak border at Nadabet: Gujarat CM Vijay Rupani


Read more at www.hospitalitylessons4u.com



Global Hospitality Industry News – 06.11.18

Dear Hospitality Professional

Here’s the news roundup from around the world!

Global Hospitality News-06.11.18

# 5 beautiful palazzo hotels in Venice to suit every budget

# Thomas Cook is opening eight new hotels

# South Korea wants tourism, people exchange with India

# Sushi chain Wasabi hires PwC in hunt for cash injection to fund expansion

# Japan invests in service industry, reshaping its legendary hospitality

# The Ten Commandments Of Superior Customer Service

# Whats new at California ski resorts for 2018-2019

# Trump spent $95,000 on hotel rooms in Cairo last month

# The stunning Yorkshire hotel with chocolate and Champagne themed rooms

# Culinary Medicine: A Recipe for Better Health


Read more at : https://hospitalitylessons4u.com/hospitality-news

Global Hospitality Industry News – 05.11.18

Dear Hospitality Professional

Here’s the news roundup from around the world!

# Dubai hotel staff join hands to stay fit, boost solidarity

# Best Champagnes for Your Celebration

# Philippine hospitality school draws foreign students

# The new Four Seasons coffee table book is beautiful

# How Airlines Struggle During Winter and What They Can Do

# 11 incredible hotels for watching the Northern Lights in Iceland

# 11 Fabulously Festive Pop-Ups at London Hotels This Winter

# Heres why al fresco dining is back in style

# 5 White Wines to Drink with Indian Food

# Startups take desi foods like vada pav abroad

Read more at : https://hospitalitylessons4u.com/hospitality-news

Front Office Terminology

Front Office Terminology

Account-Document containing details of all guest transactions.

Advance Payment- Payment made for one room night at least by guest to guarantee his reservation..

Affiliate Reservation Network– A hotel chain reservations network  in which all participating hotels are members.

Allowance-A monetary reduction to the guest bill because of an accounting error or  loss of service.

Airport Hotel-A hotel located in proximity to an airport. Categorized as transit hotel. Guest segment include travellers transit, airline crew, and lay-overs.

Amendment- A change in the reservation made by a guest earlier.  A change in room category/dates of arrival or departure/ arrival or departure time.

Authorization code-A credit  verification generated online approving the transaction.

American Plan/Full Pension-  A food plan in which room rates include American Breakfast, Lunch and Dinner. Usually favoured for employees of a company attending a  HR  program- conference, meeting, training session or seminar. Offered logically by Convention hotels.

Availability  Status–  Updated Number of rooms in each category. Enables front office staff to know at a quick glance, number of rooms available for sale in each category.

Average Room Rate/ ARR–   An average rate derived dividing total room revenue earned by the number of  rooms sold.


Bounced Guest- A guest with a confirmed reservation denied a room on arrival due to over booking, overstays, OOO rooms not being readied in time. Or some rooms having a problem.

Bumped Guest- A bounced guest escorted to another hotel for the night to be escorted back the next morning.

Back-to Back– A full house in which the numbers of arrivals equal the number of departures..

Bed & Breakfast Hotel-  Hotels normally small in which room rates include breakfast. Now all hotels offer this service citing ‘Breakfast complimentary..’

Booking-Reserving a room or rooms on guest  request for a particular length of time.

Blocking-  Setting aside  a number of rooms, normally for a group, on one particular floor, or as required.


Cancellation– a reservation request of a guest voided.

Central Reservations System/CRS- A network for reservations in which automatically reservation/ amendment/ cancellation. requests are updated.

Chain Hotels-  A  group of hotels owned by a company operating with a common brand name.

Commercial Hotel  A hotel located in the heart of the city, catering, primarily, to the business travellers.

Check-out-   A guest who has settled his bills and departed.

Corporate rate- A discounted room rate for executives of  a company which has a business arrangement – commitment of room nights vis a vis a certain rate.


Concierge – A  very experienced   hotel employee with excellent networks. Basic task to liaison for the guest internally and externally too to cater to specific guest requests.  A  Concierge is a European concept.


Cut-off Date- A  mutually agreed upon date between the hotel and  a group, after which the tentative booking is null& void, for the hotel to release the rooms.


DND- ‘Do Not Disturb’ is a communication by the guest not to be disturbed. May be in the form of the door knob and/or on the room’s telephone.



Due Out– A room status indicating the occupied room shall be vacant the following day after the stipulated  check-out time.


Early Arrival-   A guest who arrives  before his expected date of arrival.


Employee folio–  A folio opened to record employee transactions. Examples- purchasing something from the cake shop or as ITC Hotels employees enjoy the privilege of buying ITC cigarettes at factory price from Room Service. Normally, the employee gets a discounted rate, with the option of paying then & there or getting it debited from his salary.

European Plan– A food plan in which room rate are included with food& beverages to be billed separately.

Expected Arrivals List/ Daily Arrivals list- A report generated the previous day detailing the following day’s expected arrivals with details of guest; details: transferred from the reservation form.

Expected Departures List

A report generated the previous day detailing the following  day’s departures.


Family Rate- A special  room rate for for  a family of a couple and children.

Flex Time-  A schedule of flexible hours that allows employees  to vary their time of starting and ending their work hours, under special circumstances with the HOD’s consent.

Floor Limit- A credit limit, allowed  to a credit card holder  by the credit card company.

Folio Posting- The process of entering transactions in the folio.

Forecasting– A process of  predicting room availability and  occupancy statistics. Can go totally off target like the weather forecasting !

Franchise-A contract entered into by two parties. One-the Franchiser and the other- Franchisee for the latter to use the former’s  reputed name & brand to conduct business. The franchisee to adhere to the franchiser’s standards as also pay royalty.

FIT– Free Individual Traveller, meaning a guest who pays rack rates/ rates as published in the tariff.

Full House-  A situation in which all the rooms of the hotel are reserved.  A Front Office Manager’s dream ! 


Global Distribution System- A distribution channel global in nature for room reservations. It provides world-wide distribution of room reservation status for travellers to book online.


Group Rate-A discounted room rate for a body of 15 pax travelling together  for a common purpose.


Guest Folio– A  document used to  record/post  all  financial transactions of a guest, generated at the time of registration.

Guest History– A record of a guest’s personal & financial  details stored by the front office, relevant to the hotel for retaining the guest.

Guaranteed Reservation- A  reservation in which the  room is held for the guest for 24 hours from his expected time of arrival.. As the, hotel is assured of one night’s room rent.



Handicap room– A  room designed  with features for handicapped/ physically challenged guests.


High Balance/ High Risk Account-  A guest account that has reached or about to reach the pre-determined credit limit. Requiring the need for a part payment or settlement.


House Count- The  total number of guests in the hotel at any  time.

House Use-  A room that is being used as  by  an employee of the hotel with the sanction of the management.

Housekeeper’s Room Status Report-  The status of rooms (Occupied, Vacant, OOO) compiled after a physical check by the Housekeeping staff.  Used to compare to find out discrepancies, if any with the Front Office room status.


Independent Hotel- A stand alone hotel, not affiliated to any chain or group.

Inter-sell Agency– A Central Reservation System that offers a package of hospitality services. For Example- Hotel bookings, airline bookings etc 


Late- Checkout- A  guest who is allowed to retain his room  past the check-out time.

Modified American Plan– A food plan that includes room rate, American breakfast and dinner only.

Layover- When a flight is unable to take off  and it is  forced to stay the night. The airline puts up the passengers at hotels in the city for a night. A discounted rate as it is a bonus plus high volume  unexpected business. The guest  in this case is termed layover.


Night Audit- A daily reconciliation of guest accounts with revenue transactions done daily at midnight after the day’s books of accounts are closed. A unique feature-closing books of accounts daily- specific only to the hotel industry. Night audit is the responsibility of the Night Auditor.

Non Affiliate Reservation Network-   A reservation network connecting independent hotels.

Non Guest Account-  An account created  to post financial transactions of  non- resident guests who enjoy credit facilities.

No Post Status-  A  term used to denote a guest who is not allowed to  enjoy any credit facility during her/ his stay.

No-Show- A guest with a confirmed reservation failing to turn up.


Occupancy Percentage- An occupancy ratio indicating the number of rooms  sold with the available for sale.

Overbooking-   Taking more room reservations as against the available. Done to counter No-Shows, Early Checkouts and last minute cancellations.

‘000’- A room status indicating the room is Out of Order, due to maintenance or other problem.  Also referred to as ‘Red Slip Room’- thered slip indicated it was Out of Order.


Paid-in Advance- A guest who pays her/ his room charges in advance at the time of registration.

POS- Point of Sale- being the location where the guest is provided the service. For example- Room Service, Coffee Shop etc.

Pre-registration- The process of filling in all the details of a guest to arrive that day to facilitate a convenient & faster registration on arrival. Details of the guest taken  from the Room Reservation Form and/or Guest History Card.

PMS/ Property Management System-  A software package that offers a variety of applications that related to front of the house & back of the house processes.

Posting- The process of recording guest  transactions on the guest folio.


Reservation- The  process of taking down the guest details to  block a room type as per the guest requirements.

Registration- The mandatory  legal  process of allotting a room to a guest  by filling up the Room registration card.

  Rack rate-  The standard rate for of the property  for a category of rooms, printed on the tariff card. A non-discounted rate, offered to FIT’s.

Room rate– The actual rate charged  to be paid  by the guest.

Room Status- The tem  used to describe whether the room is Occupied, Vacant , to be Cleared, OOO.

Room Status Discrepancy- A situation in which the status on the Housekeeper Status Report and the Front Office’s status do not tally/ reconcile.  Detailed checks are made to find out the discrepancy and tally.


Skipper-  The room status indicating the guest has skipped- checked out without settling the bills.

Sleep Out-  A registered room guest who  sleeps out  and not in the room.

Stay-over- A guest who is staying beyond his earlier informed date of departure.


Up-selling- A sales technique where a guest is offered a  more expensive room than the category he chose, done subtly buy communicating a picture of the experience and the services.

Up-grading- On registration allotting a guest a higher category of room than the one booked for. This could be as that category may have been oversold or  to ensure the guest and the big business he represents is retained by the hotel. This at no extra cost but after informing the guest of the same.


Voucher- A document supporting the any financial transaction  between a guest and the hotel.


Walk-in- A guest who  arrives at the hotel without a reservation. 


Yield Management- A  technique based on supply and demand  used to maximize revenues by lowering rates during off seasons and increasing it during peak season.


Zero Out-  Status denoting the guest has settled the bill on checking out.




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